The second dollar ZWN was replaced on 1 August by the third dollar ZWR ,   which was then phased out by the fourth dollar ZWL with short notice on 2 February because it rapidly lost value. Cents Zimbabwean bond notes since 28 November - denominated in U. Day Exchange rate August
On 2 February , banknotes of the fourth dollar ZWL were introduced to replace those of the third dollar at the ratio of one trillion 10 12 to 1.
It was originally envisaged that banknotes of the third dollar would remain legal tender until 30 June but all banknotes were withdrawn from circulation following the suspension of the Zimbabwe dollar on 12 April The Chiremba Balancing Rocks near Harare is the main artwork used for obverse sides of the first two banknote designs of the first Zimbabwean dollar. Notes of these design also feature on either side major landmarks and landscapes such as the Kariba Dam and fauna. As hyperinflation took hold at the end of the 20th century the quality of the notes deteriorated as printing plates from previous issues were reconstituted for printing emergency notes.
Although the notes of the first design were gradually phased out from , all remaining notes of the first dollar were forcibly demonetised on 22 August The Desmond Crough series was the first series of banknotes for Zimbabwe, which carried the signature of Dr. Crough , then the last governor of the Reserve Bank of Rhodesia. The notes bear Salisbury as the name of its capital rather than Harare , as the name was changed on 18 April There are four denominations in this series: The dated issues banknotes differed little from the earlier, except that it took into account the renaming of the country's capital from Salisbury to Harare.
These type of issues are rare. Moyana as governor of the Reserve Bank. The Kombo Moyana series refers to a series of banknotes which carried Kombo Moyana's signature after being appointed governor of the Reserve Bank from to August The series bears the new name of Zimbabwe's capital Harare and is indifferent to the last two series except for the date and signature.
In August , Leonard L. The banknotes which carried his signature are referred to as the Leonard Tsumba series.
The first banknotes to be issued with his signature was the two last runs of the original designs, dated The dated versions were brown. This was the last series of regular banknotes of the first dollar, as hyperinflation forced all regular banknotes series out of use, although remaining legal tender theoretically until 21 August The Standard Chartered series was a series of emergency bearer cheques issued by the Standard Chartered Bank hence the title on the top of these cheques and the Cargill Cotton Group.
They carry the signature of the company's finance director Priscilla Mutenbwa and operations director Stephen Newton-Howes. The bearer cheque series was a series of emergency currency notes of the first dollar which were in circulation between 15 September and the withdrawal of the first dollar on 21 August Following the redenomination of August , bearer cheques that were originally scheduled to expire on 31 December were demonetised early. Bearer cheques dated 15 September bear the signature of the acting governor Charles Chikaura.
The remainder of the series bear the signature of Dr. Gideon Gono , who was appointed governor in November The Zimbabwean dollar was first redenominated on 1 August under a currency reform campaign codenamed Operation Sunrise and involving the motto Zero to Hero. The change over process was given at short notice and was also rapid because all issues prior to the August series were to be demonetised and rendered worthless on 21 August Poor communications meant that many civilians of Zimbabwe were unable to convert old bearer cheques to new ones before the deadline.
The cheques were signed by Dr. Three denominations of the series remained legal tender at the ratio of 10 10 to 1 until being demonetised on 31 December Those with slightly larger serial numbers bear the prefix DA. Although of a different design and with the intention for use only by farmers, it had found its way into regular use because of the parallel functions with bearer Cheques and the exponential rise of food prices. Following the currency reform, Agro and bearer cheques were phased out on 1 January The banknote series was prepared by the Reserve Bank in October for the abandoned second phase of Operation Sunrise.
There were additional security features as opposed to previous issues, which included security threads , see-through register marks and recognition marks for the partially sighted. When the redenomination of 1 August occurred these notes were put into circulation as banknotes of the third dollar between 1 August to 31 December The banknote series circulated from 29 September to 12 April Later denominations copied design features from the original banknote series and lacked many modern security features that banknotes of major currencies such as the Canadian Dollar relied on.
The notes had a revised design with chevrons as registration devices, the Zimbabwe Bird in Optically Variable Ink and an iridescent strip. Most parts of the design were recycled from designs of past issues and do not have a watermark although a plain space existed in the areas where it would normally be positioned. Withdrawals from Zimbabwean bank accounts were issued in Bond Notes. Special prefixes were allocated for Replacement banknotes of Zimbabwe. Some examples of such notes may be sold further in excess of their true face value.
The price and value of a Zimbabwean banknote depend on various factors: Zimbabwean banknotes are usually sold by banknote dealers over the counter or on the internet, although the most valued types theoretically qualify for inclusion in auction. As in every fiscal emergency, hard currency, particularly the United States dollar, has long served as a parallel currency on the black market, and many prices in shops would be posted in US dollars, even during periods when it was illegal to possess foreign currency or to transact business in US dollars.
A unique form of circulating specie is the fuel ration coupon, which has been issued in , , and They were as follows: Information about the banknote series which involved the issue of such notes can be found in the section Paper money of the third dollar ZWR. However, the Guinness World Records recognises the Hungarian 1 billion b. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Zimbabwe portal Numismatics portal. Archived from the original PDF on 26 June For most of the past two decades, the people of Zimbabwe have endured widespread famine due to severe droughts.
First introduced in , the Zimbabwe dollar replaced the Rhodesian dollar at par. This out-of-control inflation drove the ZWD down, and at one point it was the least valuable currency in the world.
The following year the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe declared inflation illegal and banned the raising of prices. However, inflation still ran at percent. The second revaluation began in The government started to allow some retailers to accept other foreign currencies as they printed banknotes with higher and higher values to keep up with inflation.
Inflation continued to devastate the economy, and the Reserve Bank continued to print more banknotes. Demonetization is the process of officially removing the legal status of a currency unit.
Also in , the government legalized the use of foreign currencies and abandoned the use of the ZWD in April. At least nine different currencies acted as legal tender in the country. In late , the government of Zimbabwe also introduced a batch of bond notes as a form of alternative currency, with a bond note having an exchange rate of 1: Currently, the country experiences a 3. A soft currency is one that's value is inherently weak and not Currency substitution is the use of a foreign currency in transactions Does it make sense to invest in these countries with high government spending levels as a percentage of GDP?